Top 50 FAQs for Database

1. What is a database?

Ans:- A database is a structured collection of data organized for efficient storage, retrieval, and management.

2. What is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)?

Ans:- An RDBMS is a type of database management system that organizes data into tables with rows and columns, establishing relationships between them.

3. What is SQL?

Ans:- SQL (Structured Query Language) is a programming language used for managing and manipulating relational databases.

4. What is the primary key in a database table?

Ans:- The primary key is a unique identifier for each record in a database table, ensuring data integrity and providing a way to uniquely identify each row.

5. What is normalization in database design?

Ans:- Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database to reduce redundancy and dependency by dividing tables into smaller, related tables.

6. What is denormalization?

Ans:- Denormalization is the process of combining tables in a database to improve query performance, sacrificing some level of normalization.

7. What is a database index?

Ans:- A database index is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table.

8. What is a foreign key?

Ans:- A foreign key is a field in a database table that refers to the primary key in another table, establishing a link between the two tables.

9. What is the difference between a database and a database management system (DBMS)?

Ans:- A database is a collection of data, while a DBMS is software that manages, organizes, and provides access to that data.

10. What is the ACID property in database transactions?

Ans:- ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that ensures the reliability of database transactions.

11. What is a NoSQL database?

Ans:- A NoSQL database is a type of database that provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data modeled in formats other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.

12. What is the CAP theorem in distributed databases?

Ans:- The CAP theorem states that a distributed system cannot simultaneously provide all three guarantees of Consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance.

13. What is data warehousing?

Ans:- Data warehousing involves collecting, storing, and managing data from various sources to support business intelligence and reporting.

14. What is a database schema?

Ans:- A database schema is a blueprint that defines the structure of a database, including tables, fields, relationships, and constraints.

15. What is data modeling?

Ans:- Data modeling is the process of creating a visual representation of the structure of a database, including entities, relationships, and attributes.

16. What is the difference between a database and a data warehouse?

Ans:- A database is a general-purpose storage system, while a data warehouse is specifically designed for analytical processing and reporting.

17. What is a stored procedure?

Ans:- A stored procedure is a precompiled collection of one or more SQL statements that can be executed as a single unit.

18. What is database sharding?

Ans:- Database sharding involves dividing a large database into smaller, more manageable pieces called shards to improve scalability.

19. What is a trigger in a database?

Ans:- A trigger is a set of instructions that automatically execute in response to certain events on a particular table or view in a database.

20. What is data mining?

Ans:- Data mining is the process of discovering patterns and knowledge from large sets of data using techniques such as statistics and machine learning.

21. What is Big Data?

Ans:- Big Data refers to extremely large and complex datasets that cannot be easily managed, processed, or analyzed with traditional databases and tools.

22. What is database replication?

Ans:- Database replication involves creating and maintaining multiple copies of a database to ensure data availability, fault tolerance, and load balancing.

23. What is the role of a database administrator (DBA)?

Ans:- A database administrator is responsible for managing, configuring, securing, and optimizing database systems.

24. What is a data dictionary?

Ans:- A data dictionary is a centralized repository that stores metadata about the data in a database, including definitions, relationships, and constraints.

25. What is the difference between OLTP and OLAP?

Ans:- OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) is focused on transaction-oriented applications, while OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) is designed for complex queries and data analysis.

26. What is database clustering?

Ans:- Database clustering involves grouping multiple database servers together to provide high availability and fault tolerance.

27. What is a document-oriented database?

Ans:- A document-oriented database is a type of NoSQL database that stores, retrieves, and manages data in the form of documents, often using JSON or BSON formats.

28. What is the role of a data analyst?

Ans:- A data analyst interprets and analyzes data to help organizations make informed business decisions.

29. What is the difference between a primary key and a unique key?

Ans:- Both primary and unique keys enforce uniqueness, but a table can have only one primary key, while it can have multiple unique keys.

30. What is data compression in databases?

Data compression reduces the size of data stored in a database, improving storage efficiency and retrieval performance.

31. What is a database view?

Ans:- A database view is a virtual table that is based on the result of a SELECT query, allowing users to query and modify the data as if it were a regular table.

32. What is the purpose of database normalization?

Ans:- The purpose of normalization is to eliminate data redundancy and dependency by organizing data into related tables.

33. What is the difference between a clustered and a non-clustered index?

Ans:- In a clustered index, the order of data in the index corresponds to the physical order of the data in the table, while in a non-clustered index, the order is independent of the physical order.

34. What is a composite key in a database?

Ans:- A composite key is a key that consists of multiple columns, used to uniquely identify a record in a table.

35. What is database replication lag?

Ans:- Database replication lag is the delay between changes made to a primary database and the replication of those changes to a secondary database.

36. What is a data mart?

Ans:- A data mart is a subset of a data warehouse that is focused on a specific business function, department, or subject area.

37. What is the role of a database architect?

Ans:- A database architect designs and creates the structure and architecture of a database system to meet the organization’s requirements.

38. What is the difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE in SQL?

Ans:- DELETE is used to remove specific rows from a table, while TRUNCATE removes all rows, resetting the table’s identity seed.

39. What is an ETL process in data warehousing?

Ans:- ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) is a process used to collect, clean, and transform data from various sources before loading it into a data warehouse.

40. What is the purpose of database auditing?

Ans:- Database auditing involves tracking and logging database activities to ensure compliance, security, and accountability.

41. What is a materialized view?

Ans:- A materialized view is a precomputed, stored result of a query that can be refreshed periodically to reflect changes in the underlying data.

42. What is the difference between a data warehouse and a data lake?

Ans:- A data warehouse is a structured repository for structured data, while a data lake is a storage repository that holds raw, unstructured data in its native format.

43. What is the role of database caching?

Ans:- Database caching involves storing frequently accessed data in memory to reduce the need for repeated database queries, improving performance.

44. What is database mirroring?

Ans:- Database mirroring involves maintaining two copies (principal and mirror) of a database on separate servers to provide high availability and failover support.

45. What is a database connection pool?

Ans:- A database connection pool is a cache of database connections that are reused, reducing the overhead of opening and closing connections for each database transaction.

46. What is the difference between horizontal and vertical partitioning?

Ans:- Horizontal partitioning divides a table into smaller tables with the same structure but different rows, while vertical partitioning divides a table into smaller tables with different columns.

47. What is a database transaction?

Ans:- A database transaction is a sequence of one or more SQL statements executed as a single unit, ensuring data integrity and consistency.

48. What is a distributed database?

Ans:- A distributed database is a database system that stores data across multiple servers or locations, providing scalability and fault tolerance.

49. What is the role of data governance in database management?

Ans:- Data governance involves defining policies and procedures for managing and ensuring the quality, integrity, and security of data within an organization.

50. What is a data breach?

Ans:- A data breach is an incident where unauthorized individuals gain access to sensitive or confidential data, potentially leading to its theft, loss, or exposure.

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