Here are 30 MLflow interview questions along with their answers:
1. What is MLflow?
Ans: MLflow is an open-source platform for the complete machine learning lifecycle management. It provides tools and frameworks to track experiments, manage models, and deploy them to production.
2. What are the main components of MLflow?
Ans: The main components of MLflow are:
- Tracking: Records and tracks experiments and parameters.
- Projects: Packages and deploys machine learning code.
- Models: Manages and deploys machine learning models.
- Registry: Stores and manages model versions.
3. What is MLflow Tracking?
Ans: MLflow Tracking is a component of MLflow that allows users to log and track experiments, parameters, metrics, and artifacts related to their machine-learning projects.
4. How do you log an experiment in MLflow?
Ans: Experiment logging in MLflow can be done by using the mlflow.start_run() function at the beginning of the code and then logs parameters, metrics, and artifacts within the run.
5. What is an MLflow run?
Ans: An MLflow run represents a single execution of a machine learning experiment. It includes information such as the run ID, start time, end time, metrics, parameters, and artifacts.
6. What are MLflow artifacts?
Ans: MLflow artifacts are the files and resources generated during the course of an experiment. They can include model files, visualizations, data files, or any other relevant output.
7. What is an MLflow model?
Ans: An MLflow model is a standard format for packaging and deploying machine learning models. It consists of model files and a YAML configuration file that describes the model and its dependencies.
8. How do you save a model in MLflow?
Ans: To save a model in MLflow, you can use the mlflow.sklearn.save_model() function (for scikit-learn models) or the mlflow.pytorch.save_model() function (for PyTorch models), depending on the framework used.
9. What is MLflow Projects?
Ans: MLflow Projects is a component of MLflow that enables users to package their code and dependencies into reproducible projects that can be run in different environments.
10. How do you define an MLflow project?
Ans: An MLflow project is defined using a YAML file called MLproject, which specifies the project’s entry point, dependencies, parameters, and other configurations.
11. How do you run an MLflow project?
Ans: To run an MLflow project, you can use the mlflow.run() function, providing the path to the project directory and any necessary parameters.
12. What is MLflow Registry?
Ans: MLflow Registry is a component of MLflow that allows users to store, manage, and version machine learning models. It provides version control and model lineage tracking.
13. How do you register a model in MLflow Registry?
Ans: To register a model in MLflow Registry, you can use the mlflow.register_model() function, providing the model’s path and a unique name for the model.
14. What is model versioning in MLflow?
Ans: Model versioning in MLflow refers to the ability to track and manage different versions of a machine learning model. Each version has a unique identifier and can be stored, queried, and deployed separately.
15. Define train/serve skew and some potential ways to avoid them
Ans: Most often than not, data is not passed to the modeling phase in its raw format. It needs to be preprocessed and hence undergoes several transformations. Moreover, a lot of machine learning algorithms accept only numerical inputs and aren’t equipped to deal with missing values and outliers. In other cases, they need to be completely transformed into something else like removing/filling missing values, handling outliers, scaling numerical values, encoding categorical features, etc.
The challenge is that all the processing steps need to be repeated when trying to derive inferences because the model expects the data on which predictions need to be issued to be in the same format as the training data.
If the prediction data differs significantly from the training data then it can be argued that there is a train/serve skew.
There are multiple ways to avoid train serve skew:
- Maintain separate module files for data preprocessing (a separate class or module.py file)
- Compose a preprocessing graph using a TFX transform graph etc
16. In addition to CI and CD are there any other considerations unique to MLOps?
Ans: The introduction of data and mathematical logic (algorithms/models) that are applied to that data makes MLOps an interesting endeavor. Ideally, for most software engineering projects CI/CD should be enough, but MLOps also introduces the following concepts:
- Continuous Training: when to re-train your model, how often do you do it, etc.
- Continuous Monitoring: this is the model performing well in the field.
17. What Is ‘naive’ in the Naive Bayes Classifier?
Ans: The classifier is called ‘naive’ because it makes assumptions that may or may not turn out to be correct. The algorithm assumes that the presence of one feature of a class is not related to the presence of any other feature (absolute independence of features), given the class variable.
For instance, a fruit may be considered to be a cherry if it is red in color and round in shape, regardless of other features. This assumption may or may not be right (as an apple also matches the description).
18. Explain How a System Can Play a Game of Chess Using Reinforcement Learning.
Ans: Reinforcement learning has an environment and an agent. The agent performs some actions to achieve a specific goal. Every time the agent performs a task that is taking it toward the goal, it is rewarded. And, every time it takes a step that goes against that goal or in the reverse direction, it is penalized.
Earlier, chess programs had to determine the best moves after much research on numerous factors. Building a machine designed to play such games would require many rules to be specified.
With reinforced learning, we don’t have to deal with this problem as the learning agent learns by playing the game. It will make a move (decision), check if it’s the right move (feedback), and keep the outcomes in memory for the next step it takes (learning). There is a reward for every correct decision the system takes and punishment for the wrong one.
19. How Will You Know Which Machine Learning Algorithm to Choose for Your Classification Problem?
Ans: While there is no fixed rule to choose an algorithm for a classification problem, you can follow these guidelines:
- If accuracy is a concern, test different algorithms and cross-validate them
- If the training dataset is small, use models that have low variance and high bias
- If the training dataset is large, use models that have high variance and little bias
20. How is Amazon Able to Recommend Other Things to Buy? How Does the Recommendation Engine Work?
Ans: Once a user buys something from Amazon, Amazon stores that purchase data for future reference and finds products that are most likely also to be bought, it is possible because of the Association algorithm, which can identify patterns in a given dataset.
21. Where can you use Pattern Recognition?
Ans: Pattern Recognition can be used in:
- Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP)
- Extended Compact Genetic Programming (ECGP)
- Genetic Improvement of Software for Multiple Objectives (GISMO)
- Grammatical Evolution
- Linear Genetic Programming (LGP)
- Probabilistic Incremental Program Evolution (PIPE)
- Stack-based Genetic Programming
- Strongly Typed Genetic Programming (STGP)
- Tree-based Genetic Programming
22. How Do You Design an Email Spam Filter?
Ans: Building a spam filter involves the following process:
- The email spam filter will be fed with thousands of emails
- Each of these emails already has a label: ‘spam’ or ‘not spam.’
- The supervised machine learning algorithm will then determine which type of emails are being marked as spam based on spam words like the lottery, free offer, no money, full refund, etc.
- The next time an email is about to hit your inbox, the spam filter will use statistical analysis and algorithms like Decision Trees and SVM to determine how likely the email is spam
- If the likelihood is high, it will label it as spam, and the email won’t hit your inbox
- Based on the accuracy of each model, we will use the algorithm with the highest accuracy after testing all the models
23. What is a Hash Table?
Ans: A Hash Table is a data structure that produces an associative array, and is used for database indexing.
24. What is the difference between Causation and Correlation?
Ans: Causation denotes any causal relationship between two events and represents its cause and effects.
Correlation determines the relationship between two or more variables.
Causation necessarily denotes the presence of correlation, but correlation does not necessarily denote causation.
25. What is the difference between a Validation Set and a Test Set?
Ans: The validation set is used to minimize overfitting. This is used in parameter selection, which means that it helps to verify any accuracy improvement over the training data set. A test Set is used to test and evaluate the performance of a trained Machine Learning model.
26. What is a Boltzmann Machine?
Ans: Boltzmann Machines have a simple learning algorithm that helps to discover exciting features in training data. These were among the first neural networks to learn internal representations and are capable of solving severe combinatory problems.
27. What are Recommender Systems?
Ans: Recommender systems are information filtering systems that predict which products will attract customers, but these systems are not ideal for every business situation. These systems are used in movies, news, research articles, products, etc. These systems are content and collaborative filtering-based.
28. What are imbalanced datasets?
Ans: Imbalanced datasets refer to the different numbers of data points available for different classes.
29. How would you handle imbalanced datasets?
Ans: We can handle imbalanced datasets in the following ways –
Oversampling/Undersampling – We can use oversampling or undersampling instead of sampling with a uniform distribution from the training dataset. This will help to see a more balanced dataset.
Data augmentation – We can modify the existing data in a controlled way by adding data in the less frequent categories.
Use of appropriate metrics – Usage of metrics like precision, recall, and F-score can help to describe the model accuracy in a better way if an imbalanced dataset is being used.
30. What is Pattern Recognition?
Ans: Pattern recognition is the process of data classification by recognizing patterns and data regularities. This methodology involves the use of machine learning algorithms.